You’re about to embark on a long and exciting journey, one full of hard work and rewards: starting a new business. With wide eyes and big dreams, you’re about to enter the world of business ownership.
But beyond the initial thrill of the startup decision, there’s a lot to consider. In fact, if you’ve never done it before, starting a business can seem like an intimidating mountain of work. Out of all your responsibilities and tasks, you might not even know where to start.
But have no fear. The good news is that once you have everything planned out and understand the process, the formation process is smooth sailing. And this is your go-to guide.
Everything you’ve been wondering about, everything you need to do, every question you have – it’s all right here. By the time you’re through these 16 steps, you’ll be a bonafide business owner who’s prepared for sustained success.
1) Write a Business Plan
Jumping into this endeavor without goals, directives, or a sense of direction can lead to a scattered, unproductive business.
A business plan lays the groundwork for your future success. It helps you analyze key elements of your business and forge pathways to achieve your goals. Here are a few things you should consider including in your business plan:
- Executive Summary (a separate document that gives a complete overview of your business’ purpose, plans, goals, competition, opportunities, etc.)
- Company description
- Market Analysis (opportunities, competition, etc.)
- Managerial or organizational structure
- Products and/or services
- Marketing strategies
- Funding goals
- Financial projections
Business plans aren’t just great for internal operations, but they give your business legitimacy in front of potential investors, customers, partners, and more. Need help? Check out this guide from the U.S. Small Business Administration.
2) Decide on a Business Name
You might’ve come up with the perfect name right away. If so, consider yourself lucky.
Sometimes, deciding on a business can be difficult, requiring brainstorming meetings and late-night rap sessions. That’s because your name is your business’ identity and reputation. It should be something that’s unique and memorable but also defines your business purpose.
Each business structure (see step 3) comes with its own naming restrictions. If you choose an LLC, for example, the name must include the words “limited liability company” or an abbreviation like “LLC.” Corporation names, on the other hand, must use the words “corporation,” “incorporated,” “company,” or an appropriate abbreviation.
The most important part of deciding on a business name, though, is making sure that it’s not already taken. Search for your desired name to see if it’s available in New Jersey. If so, go ahead and claim it by filing a name reservation or using it on your formation documents.
3) Decide on a Legal Structure
There are only a few types of business structures, but each one dictates some important parts of how your business will run.
The most popular types are the sole proprietorship, general partnership, limited liability company (LLC), S corporation, and C corporation. Most small businesses go with the LLC because of its unique blend of flexibility and personal asset protection.
However, you shouldn’t make this decision without reading up on all of your options. We’ve done plenty of research on each business type and developed side-by-side comparisons. Check out our LLC vs. Corporation and LLC vs. Sole Proprietorship comparison guides for a closer look.
4) Choose a Registered Agent
The Division of Revenue needs a point of contact for your business, someone who will be available at your registered office address during typical business hours – 9am to 5pm.
This person is called a registered agent, and they serve as an intermediary with the state, receiving all of your company’s important legal communications and relaying them on to you. The New Jersey registered agent ensures that no important state documents, deadlines, or payments fall through the cracks, so you’ll want to choose a person or company you trust.
You can choose either an individual or a business entity as your registered agent in New Jersey, but they must:
- Be an individual New Jersey resident or a corporation authorized for business in New Jersey.
- Have a physical address in New Jersey
- Have a mailing address in New Jersey (P.O. boxes not allowed)
- Be at least 18 years of age.
Your registered agent will be the person who helps keep your business compliant with the state and its courts, so you’ll likely want a professional who understands the nuances of business maintenance. But New Jersey’s requirements are broad, so family members and friends can be valid options as well.
Or, you can choose a registered agent service instead. These companies take care of all your registered agent responsibilities, and some will even handle your business formation and annual reporting as well.
Important: You must continuously maintain a registered agent on file with the Division of Revenue. If your agent resigns or you appoint a new one, you’ll need to notify them by filing the appropriate documents.
5) Register Your Business
This is the big one, the step that officially creates your business. No matter which business type you choose, you’ll need to register it with the Division of Revenue.
LLCs: Put your limited liability company’s information on record with the state by filing a Certificate of Formation. This $50 filling legally forms your New Jersey LLC, and you must submit it online through the state’s document filing portal.
Corporations: Corporations follow the exact same filing procedures, but will submit a corporation-specific Articles of Incorporation instead. On the first page of the filing module, just select your business type and it will provide the appropriate form.
Sole Proprietorship/General Partnership: There are no official forms or fees to register as a sole proprietor or general partnership. Simply start doing business and that’s it! While this is obviously faster and easier, we recommend incorporating your business because of the personal asset protection LLCs and corporations provide.
Foreign Entities: Businesses that are initially formed in another state and then expand to New Jersey are considered foreign instead of domestic. Therefore, you won’t need to file a Certificate of Formation or Articles of Incorporation. Instead, you will foreign qualify your business through the online filing portal. Just select your foreign business type on this screen and you’ll be directed through the filing process.
6) Get an EIN
The Employer Identification Number (EIN) is your ticket to doing state and federal taxes. It’s a nine-digit number, much like a Social Security Number, that identifies your business on tax documents.
If you’re forming an LLC, it will be considered a “pass-through” entity, so the business itself won’t pay federal income taxes. Instead, you and the other members will report income and losses on your personal tax returns.
But this doesn’t mean you can go without an EIN. If your LLC pays any type of business taxes – like Sales, Use, or Unemployment Taxes – or hires employees, you’ll need to get one.
Unsure if you need one? The IRS provides a useful “Do I need an EIN?” link on this page, where you can also apply for an EIN. If you go through the online application process, you’ll receive your number immediately.
Otherwise, you can submit a Form SS-4 by fax to (855) 641-6935 or by mail to :
Internal Revenue Service Operation
Attn: EIN Operation
Cincinnati, OH 45999
7) Open a Business Bank Account
LLC and corporation owners are required to keep their personal and business finances completely separate, or they risk losing their personal asset protection. To do so, you’ll need a business bank account.
The good news is that opening a business bank account is pretty simple. Just pay a visit to your bank’s local branch and sit down with one of the bankers there. You will need to present your formation documents, an EIN number, and some personal information. Then, you can direct all of your business income and expenses to that account instead of a personal one.
It doesn’t really matter which bank you choose, whether it’s a national giant like Chase or Bank of America or a small, local bank. However, it’s usually easiest to go with the one where you have existing accounts.
8) Handle Any Tax Obligations
Ah, taxes. They’re always part of the picture, especially when you run a business.
Familiarizing yourself with your business’ tax requirements will help you establish a solid financial plan going forward. LLCs don’t need to file a corporate tax return and pay federal income taxes, so you’ll handle these taxes as part of your personal return.
Corporations, on the other hand, will need to file a Corporate Income Tax Return, while sole proprietorships/general partnerships will need to pay self-employment taxes.
There are no franchise or privilege taxes in New Jersey, but there are a few other taxes your business may owe, depending on your business activities:
Sales and Use Taxes: Businesses that sell goods in New Jersey are subject to Sales and Use Taxes. The state’s current Sales Tax rate is 6.625%, although this can change, so keep an eye on the Division of Taxation website to monitor it.
Payroll Taxes: If your business hires employees, it will be subject to payroll taxes, primarily income tax withholding through the Division of Taxation and an Unemployment Insurance Tax through the Department of Labor and Workforce Development.
Other Taxes: There are other New Jersey taxes that apply to specific business practices, like the Alcohol Beverage Tax and the Cosmetic Medical Procedures Gross Receipts Tax. Take a look at this full list to see which ones your business might owe.
9) Find an Accountant
Sometimes it’s easier to hand off your financial responsibilities to a professional. Not only will an accountant ensures that your taxes are filed and paid correctly, but they might also find a few ways to save your business money.
Bookkeeping and tax procedures are time-consuming and require some specialized knowledge. Balance sheets, financial reports, cash flow, audits, and much more – an accountant can ensure that your company operates smoothly and streamlines its expenses.
This can be expensive depending on the complexity of your finances, but the benefits an accountant offers can be well worth it.
10) Create an Operating Agreement
An operating agreement constructs a framework of procedures and standards for your business. This is where you can lay out processes for member conduct, asset allocation, compensation policies, voting procedures, dissolution, and much more.
While operating agreements aren’t technically required in New Jersey, they are essential to your business’ stability and success. They provide a safety net in legal disputes and legitimacy in front of banks, courts, government agencies, and other businesses.
You can either draft one yourself using an online template, or you can hire an attorney or an incorporation service to take care of it for you.
Once you’ve drafted your agreement, it must be approved by each of your LLC’s members, then filed with the rest of your business documents. You do not need to submit it to the Division of Revenue.
11) Acquire the Necessary Licenses
After filing your formation documents, your business is legitimate, but it might still need specific licenses or permits before opening its doors in New Jersey. This depends entirely on your business activities, but there are four main license categories you should know:
Professional Licenses: There are particular occupations that need to obtain licensure through state boards before conducting business. You can find a complete list of licensed professions and business purposes in the NJ License and Certification Guide.
Environmental Licenses/Permits: If your business creates or deals with emissions or hazardous waste, or if it otherwise affects New Jersey’s land, air, or water, you may need to apply for a license through the Department of Environmental Protection.
Construction Licenses/Permits: Businesses that construct or renovate buildings and other structures will likely need one or more construction permits. You can find a full list on the Department of Community Affairs website.
Local Licenses: Your specific city, county, or municipality might have its own licensure requirements. Take a look at your local government’s website to find out.
12) Consider Business Insurance
Even though it’s not pleasant to consider, there’s always a chance that unforeseen events might take a toll on your assets.
While forming an LLC or corporation offers some personal asset protection, additional business insurance can also protect your business assets in cases of lawsuits, damages, etc. You can acquire insurance for your business products, vehicles, specific occupations and much more.
If you hire employees, you’ll also need to get workers’ compensation insurance. SBA.gov has a useful guide for determining which forms of insurance your new business might need.
13) Build a Website
Your company’s digital presence is just as important as its physical one. Like it or not, most potential customers will find your business online, and if you don’t exist online, you’re missing out.
But don’t worry, you don’t need to be an HTML or web design expert to build a website. Sites like WordPress and Squarespace make it easy to construct an elegant and responsive website, no coding necessary. But if you’re not comfortable or confident doing it on your own, you can always hire a professional web designer to take care of it for you.
14) Launch Social Media Accounts
Making your mark on the digital landscape doesn’t start and end with your website. Most successful businesses also have a robust social media presence on multiple platforms. Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram are all great ways to connect organically with potential customers and develop your brand voice.
Just don’t forget to publish consistent social media content, or you’ll have trouble building a base of followers.
15) Understand Ongoing New Jersey Requirements
After you’ve launched your business, things will likely be moving at 100 miles per hour as you evolve and grow. But in all of the excitement, you can’t forget your state’s ongoing compliance requirements. Every state has its own annual or biennial business requirements.
Every year, your business will need to file an Annual Report with the Division of Revenue by the last day of its anniversary month (the month it was originally formed). This is so the state can maintain current, accurate records for all of its businesses. Each report costs $75 and must be filed online. There’s no late fee, but if you miss two reports in a row, the state will dissolve your business.
16) Check Out New Jersey Small Business Resources
You’re not on this journey alone. There are plenty of free resources available to make starting and growing your business a smoother, easier process.
When you’re looking for some business assistance, you won’t find many sources better than SBA.gov, which has a wealth of valuable information and resources. New Jersey’s district office page contains info on local small business development centers, networking and educational events, tax/financial assistance, and this resource publication, which provides a deeper dive into the state’s business opportunities.