Forming a New Mexico LLC takes a lot of planning. Between the Certificate of Formation, business licenses, franchise taxes, and more, there’s a lot to consider. And paperwork and startup costs aren’t the only necessary tasks.
You’ll also want to set up your LLC to run smoothly and avoid legal troubles after it’s been registered with the state.
That’s where the LLC operating agreement comes in.
What is an LLC Operating Agreement?
An operating agreement gives your business structure and official procedures. It designates ownership, establishes operations, defines member responsibilities, and provides legal protection. Essentially, it lays out everything someone might need to know about your LLC. And it’s an internal document, so there’s no filing or fees involved.
Whether you’re starting a multi-member or single-member LLC, we strongly recommend completing an operating agreement. It’ll benefit and protect you for as long as you’re in business.
Am I Required to Have an Operating Agreement in New Mexico?
No. Maintaining an operating agreement isn’t mandatory for New Mexico LLCs, but adopting one will provide your business with many valuable benefits, so we highly recommend doing so.
Operating agreements are essential to the efficiency and effectiveness of your company. They establish procedures, govern member conduct, and protects your personal financial assets, among many other things. Without an agreement on file, your business will be functioning at a disadvantage.
Benefits of Creating an Operating Agreement
You want what’s best for your business. Months or years in the future, you want it to be a profitable and thriving endeavor. Having an operating agreement in place will set up your LLC for sustained success.
It requires some legwork, but it’s well worth it. Just look at some of the benefits:
- Officially designates how the ownership is split up (the percentage each member/manager owns), so there are no disputes.
- Standardizes office and company operations to improve efficiency
- Outlines the procedures for member additions and resignations, registered agent changes, dissolutions, and more, so there is no confusion.
- Avoids New Mexico’s “default rules,” which define baseline procedures for any LLC without an operating agreement and aren’t necessarily the best for your business.
- Grants you greater respect from New Mexico courts.
Free New Mexico LLC Operating Agreement
Once you’ve decided to draft an operating agreement, you’ll probably want to look for resources on the Secretary of State website, but you won’t find any. That’s because they don’t exist. Since the agreement isn’t a required document and varies greatly from business to business, the S.O.S. site doesn’t offer an official form or instructions.
So, you’ll need to create your own, but don’t be intimidated! You don’t need to be an attorney or expert writer to draft an effective agreement. Plus, you can find plenty of free templates online to help you with the structure and legal terminology. While most of these templates are good options, a great starting point is one that you can get free through an affordable LLC service like ZenBusiness or Northwest Registered Agent.
Whether you’re using a template or starting from scratch, here’s a quick and easy guide for what to include:
Owner or Member Information: Names and mailing addresses.
Company Information: Your LLC’s name, registered office, and principal office.
Registered Agent Information: The name of your registered agent, their address, and contact information.
LLC Formation: The date you filed or will file your Articles of Organization with the Secretary of State.
Business Purpose: The type(s) of business your LLC will be doing in New Mexico.
Term: How long your LLC in New Mexico will be valid, typically until you file for termination.
Capital Contributions: The amount of money each member has invested in the LLC.
Profits, Losses, and Distributions: How income and debts are allocated among members and methods for distributing funds.
Ownership Percentage: How much of the company each member owns.
Management and Roles: The managerial structure and decision-making processes, naming who is in charge or certain operations.
Compensation: How members/managers are compensated and reimbursed.
Bookkeeping: Accounting procedures and member account policies.
Tax Treatment: Whether your LLC will be taxed as a Sole Proprietorship, Partnership, S-Corporation, or C-Corporation.
Member Additions: The procedure for bringing on new members – how they will be admitted, if they’re entitled to income, any expenses they will owe, their roles, etc.
Member Withdrawal: Procedures for the resignation, expulsion, retirement, or death of an existing member.
Amendment Procedures: How your LLC will approve changes to the operating agreement. Usually, it’s through a majority vote by the members.
Dissolution: What happens when you terminate your LLC. How your members will split up the remaining assets or debts.
You don’t always need to include all of the above. If any don’t apply to your LLC, feel free to leave them out. Still, it’s a good idea to cover as many bases as possible. Even if you’re a single-member LLC, you should consider including as many sections as possible to accommodate future changes. Otherwise, years into the life of your business, you may run into a dispute over something you didn’t include, and you won’t be able to fall back on the operating agreement.
All finished? It’s a good idea to review it and confirm that you didn’t miss anything important. The agreement needs to be approved by each LLC member, then it’s official. There’s no need to send it to the Secretary of State. It’s an internal document, so just store it with your other business files. You’ll likely need to review and revise it later.
Making Changes to Your Operating Agreement
For better or worse, your business is going to change. As you begin doing business in New Mexico and, hopefully, raking in profits, the LLC will grow and evolve. It will develop different needs and more complicated processes. Keep everything running smoothly but updating your operating agreement as changes occur.
First, all LLC managers/members must approve the change. To seek approval, follow the guidelines you already outlined in your operating agreement for ratifying amendments.
Because it isn’t recorded with the state, modifying your agreement is as simple as making changes to the Word document or PDF you keep in your own files.
For example: your registered agent resigns and, following New Mexico law, you appoint a registered agent service to take their place. Simply pull up your electronic file, enter the new agent information, save it, and print a copy. Make sure you keep a draft of the previous document as well so you can track the changes you’ve made, just in case the state ever has any questions.
Hiring an Attorney
Worried that you might miss a critical detail? Uncomfortable with legal minutiae? If you want to ensure your operating agreement provides for all possible outcomes and disputes, you might consider hiring an attorney to review it or write it entirely.
Some attorneys have a flat rate for drafting an operating agreement; others bill by the hour. Either way, you’ll only need their assistance for a limited period of time. Use a site like Avvo to find the right fit for your business. Avvo’s database lets you sort by location, rate, and more – it even shows New Mexico lawyers that specialize in LLCs.
Hiring an LLC Formation Service
The LLC formation process, with its forms and fees, might make you want to throw up your hands and surrender. Don’t do that! Instead, consider hiring an online service like ZenBusiness or Northwest Registered Agent.
An online service like we mentioned earlier can quickly take care of all your necessary filings. Plus, they’ll create a customized operating agreement for you!
Given the amount of time you would spend drafting an agreement from scratch, a formation service is worth it. Not only will you receive a meticulously researched and crafted operating agreement, but you’ll also be able to spend more time growing your business, planning your next move, or just relaxing.
The New Mexico LLC Act and Secretary of State website don’t have specific sections dedicated to operating agreements, but the state laws reference them quite often, painting a picture of the document’s abilities and restrictions.
New Mexico Statutes 53-19-2 states that an operating agreement governs “the conduct of the business and affairs of a limited liability company and that agreement as amended in Writing.” Subsequently, the LLC Act references the operating agreement in a majority of its sections, underscoring the fact that it has authority over nearly every aspect of the company, including management policies, asset allocation, member responsibilities, and dissolution procedures.
Even though it dictates most aspects of your company, there are certain things that an operating agreement cannot do. It can’t authorize actions that other state or federal laws deem illegal, nor can it prevent the state from punishing your company if you don’t keep up with your maintenance. So, if your LLC doesn’t file Annual Reports or maintain a valid registered agent, an operating agreement won’t prevent its administrative dissolution. Take a look at the state’s LLC Act for more information about operating agreement restrictions.
Remember that anything you don’t cover in your operating agreement will be subject to New Mexico’s default laws, which aren’t ideal for your company, so make sure to be as detailed as possible. Do this, and your LLC will be prepared for sustained success and a long life.